اضطراب الإعتراض والتحدى عند الأطفال

اضطراب الإعتراض والتحدى عند الأطفال

الأحد 28-12-2008

اضطراب الإعتراض والتحدى عند الأطفال..أسبابه وعلاجه
يعاني صاحبها من ميول مدمرة ودهاء في التلاعب على حقائق الأمور.

الشرق الأوسط ـ الأحـد 01 محـرم 1430 هـ 28 ديسمبر 2008 العدد 10988

د. خليـل فاضـل

التحدي والمعارضة عند الصغار اضطراب حقيقي له تشخيص وأعراض وعلاج ومعالجون، وإن كان الآباء يعتقدون بأنه سوء سلوك أو دلال وشقاوة يجب ترويضها، أو أنه ناتج عن تأثيرات سلبية خارجية من قبل أقرانه في الحي أو المدرسة.

من أعراضه العدوانية والرغبة عن عمد في مضايقة الآخرين واستفزازهم، قد يكون ذلك الاضطراب بمفرده وحيداً وقد تتشارك معه أمور أخرى مثل فرط الحركة وتشتت الانتباه ADHD ، اكتئاب الطفولة، القلق والتوتر، مما يجعل الحياة مع الطفل المصاب صعبة للغاية.
أما الأعراض الأخرى التي يبنى عليها التشخيص فهي:

  • فقدان القدرة على ضبط النفس
    •  مجادلة الكبار
    •  دوماً ما يتحدى ويرفض إطاعة أوامر اهله ومدرسيه، ولا ينفذ طلباتهم ولا يلتزم بقواعدهم
    •  يضايق الناس عامة
    •  يلوم الآخرين على أخطائه وسلوكه ولا يلوم نفسه إطلاقاً
    •  حساس للغاية يتضايق من أي شيء يفعله الآخرون صغاراً كانوا أم كباراً
    •  غاضب ومليئ بالمرارة والسخط

•  منزعج ومزعج ومحطم للأشياء حوله، مما يؤثر سلباً على تحصيله العلمي، وأدائه الاجتماعي وكذلك على كافة أوجه حياته مباشرة الأسباب.

لا أحد يعرف يقيناً السبب الواضح والمحدد لكن نعرف أنه يبدأ من العام الأول إلى الثالث، في حين تكون معظم تلك السلوكيات في إطارها الطبيعي في سن الثانية، بمعنى أنها تأتي وتذهب، لكن في الحالة المرضية فإنها تستمر. ويبدو أنها تتخذ طابعاً وراثيا، بمعنى أن احتمالات وجود نفس الاضطراب لدى الأب أو الخال، مثلا. فلقد ثبت علمياً أن الاضطراب يطال أبناء المدمنين والمجرمين ثلاثة أضعاف ما يطال أولاد الناس العاديين.

لتشخيصه لا بد من الذهاب إلى طبيب أطفال نفسي يفحص الطفل ويشخصه، ويحادث والديه، ويراجع التاريخ الطبي لتحديد ما إذا كانت هناك اضطرابات نفسية أخرى مصاحبة لاضطراب الاعتراض والتحدي

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