الفصام

الفصام

الأحد 9-11-2008

 

الفصام.. حالة لم يفهم المجتمع كيف يتعامل مع مريضها 
أعراضه مزعجة تتراوح ما بين هلوسات سمعية والشعور بالاضطهاد 
الشرق الأوسط ـ الاحـد 11 ذو القعـدة 1429 هـ 9 نوفمبر 2008 العدد 10939

د. خليـل فاضـل
(شيزوفرنيا) هكذا تعود الناس على نطقها، لكنها في الحقيقة تنطق (سيكدزوفرنيا) وتعني المرض العقلي، الفصام. «سيكدز» تعني انفصاما و«فرنيا» النفس، أو الروح، لكن الصحافة والشعراء يستخدمون اللفظ للاصطلاح على ازدواج الشخصية، في حين أن الأمر جد مختلف وأبعد وأعمق من ذلك بكثير.

السيكدزوفرنيا مرض عقلي مزمن وشديد، يتسبب في حالة عدم علاجه في حالة من الفوضى السلوكية والخطر على صاحبه والآخرين، ويصيب حوالي 1% من عدد السكان في كل بلاد العالم، ويظهر أكثر في الرجال في أوائل العشرينات من عمرهم أو في أواخر سن المراهقة. أعراضه مرهقة مزعجة تتراوح ما بين هلوسات سمعية، تتمثل في سماع أصوات لا مصدر لها ولا يسمعها غيره، أو الاعتقاد بأن الآخرين يمكنهم قراءة أفكاره أو أن أفكاره تذاع على الملأ، أو أن البعض يمكنه التحكم في موجات الدفاع ومراحل التفكير، أو أن هناك مؤامرة للإيذاء بدس السم أو محاولة القتل، وهذا شعور جامح بالاضطهاد. باختصار، فهو خلل واضطراب شديد يصيب التفكير، الشخصية، السلوك، ونمط الحياة ككل.

لكن تقدم العلم الطبي النفسي والعلاج الدوائي والمعرفي وسبل التأهيل والدمج في الحياة العامة، جعلت التعافي منه أمراً ميسوراً بعد التدخل الصحيح في كيمياء المخ العصبية خاصة زيادة حساسية مستقبلات مادة (الدوبامين) المسؤولة أساساً عن (التفكير) وكذلك مادة (الجلوتامات).

يعالج الفصام بالعقاقير (المعقلة) المنظمة لكيمياء المخ. ولقد تقدم العلم الحديث في هذا الشأن إلى درجة مدهشة، غير أن الدواء وحده لا يكفي لأن العلاج التأهيلي والاجتماعي والوظائفي ضروري جداً، إلى جانب تعليم أهل المريض وتوعيتهم بطبيعة المرض وكيفية التعامل مع أعراضه.

تنقسم ردود فعل الأهل هنا إلى هؤلاء المهتمين جداً والمبالغين في الانتقاد أو في الرعاية المفرطة مما يسبب تدهوراً في الحالة، لعدم تحمل المريض هذا الزخم من المشاعر المتدفقة إيجابية كانت أم سلبية. فهناك من يهمل المريض ويتركه لشأنه بلا أدنى رعاية، مما يسبب له انتكاسة نظراً لعدم التفاعل مع البيئة المحيطة، ومن ثم الاستسلام للبلادة والتكاسل والدخول إلى عالمه الخاص، مما قد يشجع على نمو الهلاوس والأفكار الخاطئة التي ليس لها برهان أو دليل في الواقع لكن المريض يقتنع بها تماماً إلى درجة لا تقبل الشك.

* «السيكدزوفرنيا» ليس ازدواج أو انفصام الشخصية ـ جرى العرف أن المصابين بالفصام العقلي خطرون، وتلقبهم الصحافة، وأحياناً أجهزة الأمن بـ «المختلين عقلياً» وهو اصطلاح فضفاض وغير دقيق، بل وظالم في كثير من الأحيان. كما يعزى إلى المصابين أنهم على درجة من العنف في حين أن هذا – علمياً – غير صحيح إلاّ في حالة المجرمين، الذين يصابون بفصام عقلي لاحقاً، لأن نسبة العنف بين الأسوياء أكبر بكثير منها في المضطربين عقلياً.

 

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