تفسير الطبي للعنف في ملاعب الكرة

تفسير الطبي للعنف في ملاعب الكرة

الأحد 23-11-2008

ربط الإنسان معنى إصابة المرمى وتحقيق الفوز بالنصر في ساحات القتال

لشرق الأوسط ـ الأحـد 25 ذو القعـدة 1429 هـ 23 نوفمبر 2008 العدد 10953
د. خليل فاضل  
ما هو سر العنف في سلوك الإنسان؟ ولماذا يقوم مشجعو كرة القدم، مثلا، بأعمال شغب وعنف، لتتحول مدرجات المشاهدين إلى ساحات حرب؟ هذا الوجه القبيح لكرة القدم لا يمكن أن يكون سببه مجرد «خناقة كروية»، ولا يمكن أن يكون مجرد شجار، ولكنه وببساطة سلوك غير حضاري لأناس معتلين نفسيا تجمعهم ملاعب كرة القدم. يرى علماء النفس أن النشاطات الرياضية بشكل عام نوع معدل من الصيد، لكن كيف تطور سلوك الإنسان من الصيد إلى اللعب؟. من رغبة الصيد تولدت فكرة الرياضة، ورغم ان هناك ألعابا رياضية دموية كمصارعة الثيران والملاكمة وغيرها إلا ان الإنسان ظن ان ألعابا أخرى ككرة القدم ستكون سلمية، لكن ربما ربط الإنسان معنى إصابة المرمى وتحقيق النصر الكروي بالنصر في ساحة القتال، فتحول ما كان سلميا إلى أعمال شغب وعنف.

بدأت كرة القدم في الصين القديمة، ليس بشكلها الحالي، وكانت الألعاب الرياضية موجهة أساسا لهدفين. الأول غير محم مثل السلة في كرة السلة، والحفرة في لعبة الجولف.

والثاني محم كمرمى كرة القدم، وهذا الذي أصبح أكثر إثارة، بحيث صار أشبه بالفريسة، وبديلا حقيقيا للصيد، يحقق فيه الإنسان الهجوم والدفاع، الكر والفر، الإدبار والمراوغة، وسرعان ما اصبح ملعب كرة القدم أشبه بميدان صيد، يمثل كل فريق جماعة صيد تصوب الكرة إلى مرمى. ولأن هذا الأخير محروس ومحم، فإنه أكثر إثارة ويتطلب مهارة ومراوغة خاصة.

ومع بدء المباراة تبدأ تلك الروح المغامرة في التعقب والمطاردة، ومع تطور التكنولوجيا الحديثة، وفي عصر التلفزيون والأقمار الاصطناعية، ومع النمو السكاني زادت حدة التوتر الاجتماعي وحل الغضب محل التسامح، وعمت الفوضى بعض ملاعب الكرة والساحات والشوارع، بل وحتى داخل البيوت، وبرزت على السطح فئة من الناس معتلة نفسيا تذهب إلى مباريات كرة القدم تبحث عن غريم تقتله وعن رجل شرطة تقذفه بالحجارة، مما يطرح عدة اسئلة، كلها تصب في نتيجة واحدة وهي ان الازدحام والتكاثر السكاني والبطالة وضغوط الحياة والإدمان على الكحول والمخدرات، كلها عوامل تساعد على العنف، وليس ادل على هذا من أن مدينة ليفربول المعروفة بأعمال العنف في ميادين كرة القدم بها نسبة عالية من البطالة والإدمان وما يترتب على هذا من أمراض نفسية.

كذلك فإن هؤلاء الذين يشاهدون العراك لا يستفزون نفسيا فحسب، وإنما تفرز في أجسادهم مادة الأدرينالين التي تجعلهم على مستوى شعوري مساوٍ لهؤلاء المتورطين في عمليات قذف الحجارة والطعن والتحطيم، فيتورط أكبر عدد من الناس، حيث يندفع الصغار والعجائز، يضربون الشرطة واللاعبين ويصبح الأمر عبارة عن هيستريا من العنف الجماعي.

العنف في حد ذاته ظاهرة طبيعية مرتبطة بالإنسان ككائن حي، ومن المعروف ان الإنسان اكثر الفقاريات عدوانية. فالعنف يحدث في المدرسة، في الشارع، في المقهى، في ملاعب الكرة، في ساحات الحرب، وبالطبع على شاشات السينما والتلفزيون.

وهذا يشير إلى أنه سلوك معقد ينبع من مصادر كثيرة متشابكة، بعضها اجتماعي والأخرى بيئي، وبعضها نتيجة التعلم من الآخرين ومحاكاتهم، وأحياناً يكون نتيجة لمرض نفسي. ففي حالات اضطراب الشخصية تزيد العدوانية، الاهتياج، التبرم والضيق، وهنا يجب على المحللين الوقوف على أسباب العنف في كل حالة، وتحديد وتشخيص مسبباته، كذلك تحديد المسؤولية والحافز وراء كل فعل

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