لماذا «الغش»؟ بقلم دكتور خليل فاضل

مقالاتي في الصحف المصرية

الأحد 3-07-2016

 


لماذا «الغش»؟ بقلم دكتور خليل فاضل

طالعتنا الصحف مع أول امتحانات الثانوية العامة بخبر نشر امتحان اللغة العربية على الصفحات المنشأة خصيصاً لتسريب امتحانات الشهادات العامة. وظاهرة
الصفحات الإلكترونية المخصّصة للغش، التى تحمل أسماءً مثل «بلوتو» و«غشاشون فدائيون» و«بردو (مكتوبة هكذا) هانغش»، هى تحدٍ صارخ لهيبة الدولة.

مصر كدولة تعتمد على التلقين لا الفهم، والحفظ الصَمّ لا التدريب والتجريب والابتكار والقدرة النقدية والحس البحثى، تتحول فيها المدارس إلى مبانٍ تفرخ حاصلى شهادات فقط لا غير، ينمو الغش ويتطور مع تطور التكنولوجيا ومع كافة مؤشرات الانهيار القيمى.

فى المجتمع المصرى خلال ثلاثة عقود (حتى 2010)، تم رصد انتشار أنماط من السلوك والتصرفات الفردية وشبه الجماعية فى الحياة اليومية، كتزايد العنف الفردى والجماعى، كما انتشرت الرشوة، وتنوعت أساليب الغش والفساد والتحايل على الناس فى غذائهم ودوائهم. العنف اللفظى والسلوكى والسعى نحو الإقصاء، مع التأكيد أن هذه المتناقضات لا تتجاوز اجترار ذكريات الماضى التاريخى مع الآخر، ورفع شعارات المجاملة فى المناسبات المختلفة، ويغيب الحوار المجتمعى الحقيقى حول ما يحدث فى المجتمع المصرى.

هناك أربعة مقومات أساسية لتطوير العملية التعليمية، هى: العنصر البشرى، والمناهج والمواد التعليمية، وبيئة التعلم، والمنظومة الإدارية وفقًا لرؤية د. محمد محجوب، وهذه المقومات هى نفسها أهم مكونات العملية التعليمية، كما يرى فى ضوء نتائج الأبحاث التى أُجريت فى مصر. وتساءل محجوب: هل يتم إعداد المعلمين والمعلمات (فى كليات التربية بجميع أنواعها) على أكمل وجه؟ هل تُكسبهم برامج الإعداد المعارف والمهارات والاتجاهات التى تعدهم لكى يؤدوا الأدوار التى يجب على المعلم الحديث القيام بها مثل تيسير التعلم وإدارته واستثارة الإبداع والابتكار والتفكير الناقد لدى الدارسين؟، أم أن هذه البرامج تُعد المعلمين الملقنين، الذين يُخنق على أيديهم الإبداع والابتكار والرغبة فى التغيير والتطوير؟ هل تبنى هذه البرامج مهارات البحث والاستقصاء والإبداع والابتكار لدى المعلمين والدارسين فى هذه البرامج؟ أم هى نفسها تغرس فيهم الركون إلى الحفظ والاستذكار والتلقين؟ هل يتم تدريب معلمى ومعلمات المستقبل (من خلال برامج التربية العملية) على تطبيق استراتيجيات التعلم التعاونى والتعلم النشط، بالإضافة إلى أسلوب المحاضرة؟ أم أنهم لا يرون إلا المحاضرة ولا ينخرطون فى غيرها من أشكال التدريس والتعلم؟ هل توازن هذه البرامج بين المحتوى الأكاديمى والعلمى والمحتوى التربوى والبيداجوجى «التعاقد الضمنى بين الأستاذ والتلاميذ منذ بداية السنة، وبموجب هذا الاتفاق يتم تحديد واجبات وحقوق كل من الأستاذ والتلميذ، بدءا بمسح السبورة، وانتهاء بعدم الغش أثناء المراقبة، مرورًا بتحديد الأهداف المراد تحقيقها والوسائل الديالكتيكية المعتمدة، ناهيك عن الانضباط داخل الفصل، واقتناء الأدوات المدرسية»؟.

يقول أحد شباب التسعينيات، فى حوار خاص معى، إن للتعليم علاقة بإعادة هيكلة الاقتصاد، انسحاب الدولة من مسؤولياتها الصورية كدعم المحروقات والغذاء- مقابل شبكة اجتماعية بديلة، من بدل بطالة ومواصلات محترمة- ومن ثَمَّ ضخ الأموال فى قطاعات كالتعليم والصحة، ورفع كفاءة العاملين فى هذين المجالين، من خلال تدريب وبعثات، وتحديث المناهج، الذى يتطلب معارك فكرية مع التيارين الدينى والوطنى الفاشى، مثلًا من خلال تدريس نظريات كالتطور والانشطار العظيم فى العلوم، وعلمنة مناهج اللغة العربية، وإعادة قراءة التاريخ بشكل أقل رومانسية. ويرى أبوهميلة أن التعليم هو تلك العصا السحرية، التى بإمكانها حل جميع مشاكلنا، إذا ما أوليناه الاهتمام المطلوب، فهو يرتقى بالإنسان، فكراً وسلوكاً، وما نعانيه فى مصر مشكلة مزدوجة، تتمثل فى ضعف مستوى التعليم من جهة، واعتماده على التلقين والحفظ، وعدم تنمية مهارات الطلاب وتدريبهم على الفكر الإبداعى الناقد، ومن جهة أخرى انفصاله عن مشكلات المجتمع، فنجد المتعلمين وخريجى الجامعات فى وادٍ، واحتياجات المجتمع والاقتصاد فى وادٍ آخر، لذلك فلابد لأى رئيس كى ينجح فى إحداث نقلة نوعية للبلد أن يهتم بتطوير التعليم، ووضعه فى مكانه الملائم من الاستراتيجية الشاملة للتنمية، فهو بمثابة القاطرة التى تقود المجتمع للأمام.

فى حين أن التعليم فى مصر من أضعف حلقات النظام المحلى، لأنه يعتمد على الحصول على أعلى الدرجات على حساب الجودة، أى ما يهم الطالب هو درجاته وليس ما تعلمه، وما يهم المدرسة هو عدد الطلاب المتفوقين، والأرباح التى يحققونها بتلك الأرقام، وفى حالة المدارس الحكومية يمتص المعلمون دماء الطلاب بالدروس الخصوصية، نظرًا لإصرار المدارس الحكومية على تغذية تلك الحلقة الشيطانية بإعطاء المدرسين مرتبات ضئيلة.

ويخلص البعض إلى أنه (لا تعليم فى مصر، عندنا توزيع غير عادل للجهل، ناس حظها من الجهل كبير، وناس حظها من الجهل قليل، لكن لا أحد متعلم ولا
يتعلم ولا سيتعلم). عندئذ يكون للجهل نصيب كبير فى معادلة التخلف المصرية.
الثلاثاء 28-06-2016 21:39

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