Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

الثلاثاء 9-09-2014

 

Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

By Kendra Cherry, About.com Guide

The Oral Stage

During the oral stage, the infant’s primary source of interaction occurs through
the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth
is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through
gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely
dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant
also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation.

The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process–the child must become
less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed
the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation
can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting.

The Anal Stage

During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on
controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet
training–the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this
control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.

According to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which
parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using
the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children
feel capable and productive. Freud believed that positive experiences during
this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and
creative adults.

However, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children
need during this stage. Some parents’ instead punish, ridicule or shame a
child for accidents. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can
result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient,
Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personalitycould develop in which the

individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. If parents are too

 

 

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